CONDITIONAL SENTENCES

schlechte horror spiele den der ler sidst ler bedst 1- IF CLAUSES

ruby laser autonivel there Conditional sentences appear only when there is a matter of condition within the sentence. The conditional allows the sentence to express how the particular action would be realized.

When the conditional clause is used before the main clause, the two are separated with a comma; however, no comma is used when the conditional is placed after the main clause.

Shortly put, “if clauses” are sentences that convey a condition, such as “if you do …., I will buy you a present;” or “if you come with me, I will be very happy.”

Now let’s give an example:

* If I have time this evening, I will go out.

The example above is pretty simple. It speaks about a condition and a particular action that will happen based on this condition.

The subject in the sentence will not go out if s/he does not have time. The condition of going out is having time.

*In this sentence, “if I have time” is the conditional clause, while “I will go out” is the main clause.

*The part that begins with “if” is always the conditional clause.

 

TYPE ZERO

If + Simple Present……+Simple Present

You may recognize this use from our studies on the Present Simple Tense. We use type zero when we speak about our habits, typical behaviors, routine tasks, orders and instructions, and scientific facts. In other words, we use type zero while speaking of general statements and routine actions.

Let’s give an example to typical behaviors:

* Mum gets angry if I don’t tidy my room.

Such a well-known sentence this is. Hearing a mother getting angry at her daughter for not tidying up her room is a typical and repeated action, or even a habit. Therefore this sentence is an example fit for type zero.

Here’s another generalization that can be considered in the command/order group:

* Call me if you need help.

This sentence is yet another example from our daily life that we use for our friends or family. Thus this sentence too is considered in type zero.

– In type 0 we can replace “if” with “when.”

For example;

* Call me, if you go there.

* Call me when you go there.

 

TYPE 1

Events and actions that can be realized in the present or in the future depending on a condition can be expressed by using type 1. Even in the case when a future situation is given, the conditional sentence would not carry the suffix for the future tense; because, there already exists an assumption in the sentence.

If + present simple + future forms

We will go trekking if my brother doesn’t work at the weekends.

* If + present simple + present modals

If you finish your meal, you may / can play on the computer.

* If + Present Continuous

Don’t interrupt him if he is studying now.

* If + Present Perfect

If he has eaten all the meal, he can’t be hungry now.

* If + can

If Ken can pass the final test he will be accepted to the exchange program.

* If + have to

If you have to work at the weekend, we can postpone our trip to next weekend.

* If + should (unlikely to happen)

If anyone should call me, tell them to leave message.

 

TYPE 2 – UNREAL PRESENT

In the type 2 conditionals, the sentence is structured using the past tense, though the sentence is about the present. We use Type 2 to see if an assumption (that is not the case in reality) were to become real.

We can think of it as “if I had a lot of money, I would have travelled to …..” The condition here is having a lot of money; in other words, I cannot go to that place if I do not have a lot of money. Shortly put, I construct the sentence by assuming that I have a lot of money.

The sentence structure is as follows:

If + Simple Past                                  would

Past Continuous                            +    could    +   V1 /be + V-ing

Past Models – (could, had to…)           might

                                                                  

-If + simple past … would / could / might + V1

Let’s explain with examples:

She is under 18. She can’t doesn’t drieve a car.

Now let’s re-construct this sentence using an assumption:

If she were not under 18. She could / would drive a car.

– So here we have an actual situation, and an action that could have been realized if that actual situation was not the case.

 

– If + simple past … could / would / might be doing

If she didn’t have an exam, she wouldn’t be studying now.

 

– If + simple past … would be able to / would have to + V1

If she had a good memory, she would be able to remember the dates.

* “Be able to” is used to express our skills, talents, abilities. However, here it is used as “would be able to remember”, i.e. connoting an ability, thereby changing the meaning slightly.

 

If + past continuous … would / could / might / + V1 / be V-ing

If you were listening to me now, you would / could / might understand me.

(The sentence emphasizes that the person referred to is not listening.)

 

If + should – was / were to  + V1 … would / could / might  +V1

In the case where the “if clause” conveys a low chance in the future, then “was/were to” must be used instead of “should.”

* Despite these varying types, please note that we are mostly using the structure of the simple present.

 

She won’t come with us tomorrow. I will be during the trip.

This one is quite a simple sentence. So now let’s use it with “if + should.

If she should come / were to come with us tomorrow, I wouldn’t be bored during the trip.

* Please note that a wish/request is also conveyed here.

 

– If + could – If + had to

She can’t speak a foreign language. She can’t find a job easily.

Now let’s re-construct this sentence using the if clause structure above:

If she could speak a foreign language, she could find a job easily.

– In order to better understand the sentence, we can ask ourselves questions. For example, what is the condition of having the girl find a job easily? The answer is having her speak a foreign language.

 

TYPE 3 – UNREAL PAST

– If + past perfect  … would/ could might have + V3

* He didn’t drive carefully. He had an accident.

Now let’s re-construct this sentence in unreal past:

* If he had driven carefully, he wouldn’t have had an accident.

The first example states that the guy was not driving the car carefully, and therefore had an accident. Whereas in the example constructed in unreal past, we hear that there wouldn’t be an accident had the driver been careful while driving. So there still is an assumption.

 

– If + past perfect … would / could / might have been V-ing

* He went to bed very late the previous night. He was still sleeping at lunch time yesterday.

* If he hadn’t gone to bed so late, he wouldn’t still have been sleeping at lunch time yesterday.

– Once again we have an assumption here. The second example states that there would be a different result had the subject not went to bed so late.

 

– If + past perfect … would have been able to / would have had to + V1

She was ill yesterday, so she didn’t have to take the exam.

 

If + past perfect continuous tense … would / could / might have + V3  / been V-ing

She was crying because her mother was shouting at her.

The “if”-type version of the sentence:

She wouldn’t have been crying if her mother hadn’t been shouting at her.

 

MIXED CONDITIONALS SENTENCES

“Mixed conditional” is formed by bringing together different conditional sentences. In such sentences, the tense in the conditional clause and the main clause are always different. In this version, type 2 and type 3 are used together.

She didn’t write down Ali’s number, so she can’t call him now.

In the above example, the subclause before “so” is formed using past tense, whereas the subclause after “so” is structured using present tense. Therefore, the subclause with past tense is type 3, whereas the subclause with present tense is type 2.

If she had written down Ali’s number, she could call him now.

 

MIXED CONDITIONAL PATTERNS

  1. A) TYPE 2 + TYPE 3

– If clause – Present meaning + Main clause – Past meaning

* I didn’t go to the concert because I don’t like rock music.

As seen in the example above, present tense and past tense are used together.

The “if” form:

* If I liked rock music, I would have gone to the concert.

In this example “if I liked” is type 2 (present form), while “I would have gone” is type 3 (past form).

 

– If clause – Future meaning + Main clause – Past meaning

* I don’t have to cook tonight as my cousin invited me to dinner.

* I would have to cook  tonight if my cousin hadn’t invited me to dinner.

 

  1. B) TYPE 3 + TYPE 2

– If clause – Past meaning + Main clause – Present meaning

* She work hard yesterday. She is very tired now.

The “if” form:

* If she hadn’t worked hard yesterday, she wouldn’t be tired now.

 

If clause – Past meaning + Main clause – Future meaning

* Ali spent all his salary. He can’t come to California with us next week.

When formed with “if:”

* If Ali hadn’t spent all his salary, he could come to California with us next week.

 

INVERSION IN CONDITIONAL SENTENCES

We can construct conditional sentences without using the “if” form as well. However in this case the sentence structure must be inverted.

Type 1:   If you need help,….                                Should you need help

Type 2:  If I were you…..                                       Were I you

Type 3:  If they had told us….                                Had they told us

 

TYPE 1

Should + subject + verb 1 + main clause

*  If you eat too much, you will put on weight.

* You will put on weight should you eat too much.

 

 

– In inverted sentences, the negator “not” comes before the subject.

* Should Karen not call us tomorrow, we will have to go to the concert without her.

 

 

TYPE 2

If a sentence in conditional type 2 contains a verb, then the inverted sentence follows the structure below:

were + subjekt + objekt + main clause

* If I were you, I would apologize to him.

* Were I you, I would apologize to him.  şeklindedir.

 

* If there is a finite verb, then the sentence is structured as in the example below:

were + subjekt + to + infinitive + main clause

* If the Browns lived in another city, I couldn’t see them often.

* In inverted sentences, the negator “not” comes before the subject:

* Were Linda not to watch the series, she wouldn’t know all the details.

 

TYPE 3

had + subject + V3 + main clause

* If jane hadn’t taken a taxi, she would have come late.

* Had jane not taken a taxi, she would have come late.

 

2) PROVOVIDED / PROVIDING (THAT) / ON CONDITION THAT / AS (SO) LONG AS / ONLY IF

* I can be succesful provided I work hard.

 

UNLESS ( IF …. NOT)

“Unless” is usually used in Type 2. Although the word “unless” carries a negative meaning, the subclause in which it used is usually positive.

* If you don’t make your homework, you can’t go out to play.

* Unless you make your homework, you can’t go out the play.

 

 3)UNLESS or IF … NOT

* If they don’t go to school, where will they go?

– We use “if not” while speaking about feelings/sentiments.

 

4) SUPPOSE ( SUPPOSING) THAT / WHAT IF

* What if you find a better boy?

* Supposing that you had a chance to ……..

 

5) EVEN IF

Means “even if.” The result would not change had the condition changed.

* Even if they invite me there, I won’t be able to go.

 

6) In Case

She will go shopping if her mother wants something.

 

7) WHETHER or NOT

I will get married whether or not they like it/ whether they like it or not.

 

8) WITH / WITHOUT

* I could never have made it out without talking to him.

 

8) BUT

* I could lend you my book but I need it today.

 

10) BUT FOR – IF I WEREN’T / HADN’T BEEN FOR

but for + V-ing

If it weren’t for + noun … S + would / could / might  + V1

If it hadn’t been for + noun … S + would / could / might have + V3

* I couldn’t cleaning so well but for/ if it weren’t for my mother’s teaching me.

 

11) OR / OR ELSE / OTHERWEISE

* Make food; or else / otherwise we will be hungry in evening.