CONJUNCTIONS

schlechte horror spiele Conjunctions are words that connect clauses or sentences. They may also be used to coordinate words in the same clause. The most often used conjunctions are below:

den der ler sidst ler bedst  

ruby laser autonivel there  COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS 

Coordinating Conjunctions are “for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so”. These words can combine words or word groups or even two subclauses. If a coordinating conjunction is combining two subclauses, a comma is usually used before the conjuction.

 

  • And

 “And” is used to combine words and sentences. When used to combine sentences, the actions connected tend to be parallel to each other, follow each other, or caused by one another.

I like basketball and volleyball.

He opened the window and took a deep breath.

John dropped the vase and her father shouted at him.

His office is far, and he has to walk for minutes.

 

And is used right before the last item in a list. In such cases, the use of comma before “and” is optional. If the writer wants to emphasize that the last two items in the list are not combined (such as “fish and chips”), then the writer may use a comma.

There is a pencil, a book, an eraser, and a pen in my bag.

 

  • Or

I don’t like basketball or volleyball.

You can stay in, or you can come with us.            (to connote an alternative)

Go out, or I’ll call the police.                                      (or else, otherwise)

 

  • But

Connotes contrast, and is used when making a statement contrary to the first one. Usually a comma is used before “but”.

John earnt lots of money, but he wore old clothes.

Jill lives in the same city, but we can hardly see her.

 

But can also be used to replace “except”.

Everything is changing but you.

 

ps: When the subject of both subclauses are the same, “or, and, but” may not be repeated, and comma is not used.

He opened the window and he took a deep breath.

= He opened the window and took a deep breath.

You can stay in, or you can come with us.

= You can stay in or come with us.

John earnt lots of money, but he wore old clothes.

= John earnt lots of money but wore old clothes.

 

  • So

“So” is used to express causality.

I was late, so I took a taxi.

A mouse bit John’s finger when he was a child, so he hates mice.

 

  • For

When “for” is used in the same meaning with “because”, it cannot be used at the beginning of the sentence, and must be following a comma.

John became a manager just after university, for his uncle was a minister.

The teacher is speaking to the students, for they never do homework.

 

  • Yet

I live in İstanbul, yet my favourite city is İzmir.

Not everybody is here, yet we can start the lecture.

 

  • Nor

“Nor” is used in inverted sentences, and the phrase following “nor” begins with the auxiliary verb (like in an interrogative phrase).

Hans doesn’t play basketball, nor does he like volleyball.

No students want to go to the trip this weekend, nor have they planned to do anything else.

 

 

SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS

 

Subordinating conjunctions are used between a main clause and a subclause. The conjuction is placed before the subclause.

Let’s combine the two sentences below:

I go home.

School finishes.

After school finishes, I go home.

I go home after school finishes.

In the above sentence, changing the place of the subclause does not cause a change in the meaning.

 

  • after

We went shopping after the film finished.

 

  • although

Although I am quite a shy person, I have lots of friends.

 

  • as

As he is reading a book, he is lying on the sofa.

As you grow, you are getting rude.

As he needs money, he works at nights.

 

  • as if

He looks as if he is having fun.

 

  • as long as

I eat at the restaurant as long as I have enough money.

 

  • as soon as

We went to the garden as soon as the bell rang.

 

  • as though

You are eating as though you are an elephant.

 

  • because

Because she was late, she took a taxi.

 

  • before

Don’t start before Jane comes.

 

  • by the time

We had answered all the questions by the time the bell rang.

 

  • even if

Even if you are sad, you should smile.

 

  • even though

Even though it was late, we didn’t hurry.

 

  • everytime

Everytime I go to the café, I come across Elif.

 

  • if

If you are happy and you know it, clap your hands.

 

  • if only

If only you were near me, I would be happy.

 

  • in case

I will take my umbrella in case it rains.

 

  • in order that

I should buy a few books in order that I can read on the journey.

 

  • just as

Just as I opened the door, I hit the door.

 

  • no matter

No matter what they say, go on your way.

 

  • now that

Now that you are ill, you stay in.

 

  • once

You will understand everything once you listen to me.

 

  • provided

I will go provided you go, too.

 

  • rather than

I’d prefer to go rather than stay with you.

 

  • since

Since I have an exam, I am nervous.

I’ve never been to Adana since I last saw you there.

 

  • so that

I took a taxi so that I wouldn’t be late.

 

  • than

He is more handsome than I thought he was.

 

  • that

I think that you are crazy.

 

  • though

He drives an old car though he can afford to buy a new one.

 

  • till

Stay here till I come.

 

  • unless

Unless you water the plants, they won’t grow well.

 

  • until

We played outside until it started to rain.

 

  • when

When I was in America, I visited NY city.

 

  • whenever

I’ll visit you whenever I have time.

 

  • where

You should see where the war happened.

 

  • whereas

The man laughed, whereas his wife cried.

 

  • wherever

Remember me wherever you go.

 

  • while

While I was sleeping, the doorbell rang.

While the man likes pop music, his wife likes classical music.

 

 

CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTIONS

Correlative conjunctions pair up with other words to connect elements in a sentence.

 

  • both . . . and

Both tea and coffee are my favourite drinks.

A bride both cries and goes.

 

  • not only . . . but also

We not only went shopping, but we also went to the cinema.

Not only John but also Jane went out.

 

  • either . . . or

We can go to either Miami or Hawaii. Which one would you like?

Make a decision. Either stay or leave here.

 

  • neither . . . nor

 She is neither my mother nor my sister. She is my aunt.

Neither İzmir nor İstanbul is in the Black Sea region.

 

  • whether . . . or

Whether you like her or you hate her, you have to stay with her in the same room.

Whether you ride your motorbike or you take the car, you will be late.

Do you wonder whether I am angry or pleased with you?

I don’t know whether he is at home or not.