REPORTED SPEECH (INDIRECT SPEECH)

schlechte horror spiele These sentences are used mostly in daily speech, and are useful in reporting what someone or some people have said. These sentences are referred to as “indirect speech” or “reported speech.”

den der ler sidst ler bedst If the reported sentence is constructed in past tense, the reporting sentence must also be constructed in the past tense. Nevertheless, for the most part the action clause is formed in a tense prior to the reported sentence.

ruby laser autonivel there For example:

– He said the exam was very difficult.

– She said she worked in the factory every night.

– John said he came to hospital every morning.

If the reported action is in present/past/future tense, then the reported sentence must also be constructed in the same tense.

For example:

– He says the exam is very difficult.

– She has said that she works in the factory every night.

– Özkan will say that he comes to hospital every morning.

In cases where a general/de facto event is reported, then present simple is used.

For example:

– The repairman said that electrical repairs are very dangerous.

 

Changing the subject pronoun and adverbs of time for agreement:

Prior to the reported sentence, the subject pronoun must also be changed to ensure the agreement between the object/subject and the pronoun.

Example:

– She said, “I want to bring my children.”

– She said she wanted to bring her children.

++ Jack said, “My wife went with me to the show.”

++ Jack said his wife had gone with him to the show.

 

In order to make the current moment of speech compatible with present/past/future tense, the adverbs of time also have to be changed.

For example:

– She said, “I want to bring my children tomorrow.”

– Jack said, “My wife went with me to the show yesterday.”
 

Indirect Questions

While reporting questions, we have to pay specific attention to the sentence order. While reporting yes/no questions, we use “if;” whereas for questions such as “why, where, when, etc.” we begin the sentence with these very words.

For example:

– She asked, “Do you want to come with me?”

– She asked me if I wanted to come with her.
++ Dave asked, “Where did you go last weekend?”

++ Dave asked me where I had gone the previous weekend.
– He asked, “Why are you studying English?”
– She asked me why I was studying English.

 

The sentences given in the table below are used in the past tense.

Please pay specific attention to the sentences marked with “*”.

ps: All tenses, including past, near future and past perfect, have all been converted into past perfect tense.

 

Direct Speech / Indirect Speech

He said, “I live in Paris.”

He said he lived in Paris.

 

He said, “I am cooking dinner.”

He said he was cooking dinner. ”

 

He said, “I have visited London twice.”

He said he had visited London twice.”

 

He said, “I went to New York last week.”

He said he had gone to New York the week before.

 

He said, “I had already eaten.”

He said he had already eaten. ”

 

He said, “I am going to find a new job.”

He said he was going to find a new job.”

 

He said, “I will give Jack a call.”

He said he would give Jack a call.

 

He said, “I have been working on that project for over two weeks.”

He said he had been working on that project for over two weeks.

 

He said, “I can come tonight.”

He said he could come that night.

 

He said, “I may buy a new car.”

He said he might buy a new car.

 

* He said, “I might go to Denver.”

He said he might go to Denver.

 

* He said, “I must give Ken a call.”

He said he had to give Ken a call.

 

* He said, “I have to give Ken a call.”

He said he had to give Ken a call.

 

* He said, “I should see a doctor”

He said he should see a doctor.