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We quote the reported sentence directly in quotation marks without making any change.
‘I’m going home,’ she said.
She said: ‘I’m going home.’
She said, ‘I’m going home.’
Reported speech (Indirect speech):
Personal pronouns and the tenses are changed in the reported sentence. In this type of speech, we do not use quotation marks.
She says she’s going home.
She said she was going home.
2) In reported speech, we have to change the personal pronouns (I, me, myself, etc.) and possessive adjectives (my, your, etc.) according to the person whose sentence we report.
Sonya said, ‘I have done my homework.’
Sonya said she had done her homework.
* Here we say “she” while speaking about Sonya; similarly, while speaking about Sonya’s homework we say “her” homework.
When the reporting verb is in the present or future tense (such as “he says,” “she will tell us” etc.), the tense does not change.
‘I play football in the school team,’ Manu says.
Manu says he plays football in the school team.
3) Say and tell
“ Say” can be used without mentioning the person whose statement is reported. On the other hand, “tell” is always used with a personal object, i.e. the person whose statement is reported has to be included in the sentence.
He said he was going home.
He told me he was going home.
If we both want to use the verb “say” and mention the person whose statement we are quoting , then we must use “to” after “say.”
He said to me he was going home.
Similar to “say” and “tell,” the verbs “explain, promise, agree, decide, claim, threaten, admit, complain, deny, suggest, understand, believe, confess, declare, point out, remark, think, warn” can also be used with “that subclause.”
‘I will be careful.’ : He promised that he would be careful.
‘I haven’t failed the exam.’ : He denied that he failed the exam.
‘Let’s go to the cinema.’ : She suggested that we should go to the cinema.
4) If the reporting verb is in the past tense, the tense in the reported sentence must also be given in the past. The present tense must be converted into past tense, and the past tense must be converted into past perfect tense.
Present simple to past simple
‘I live in the country.’ she told me.
She told me she lived in the country.
Present continuous to Past continuous
He said, ‘I’m going home now .’
He said he was going home then.
Present perfect tense to past perfect tense
He said, ‘I have seen this film twice.’
He said he had seen the film twice.
Past simple to past simple / past perfect simple
‘I met your cousin at the zoo yesterday.’ he told me.
He told me he had met my cousin at the zoo the day before.
Past continuous to past continuous / past perfect continuous
‘We were working at 5 o’clock .’ they said
They said they had been working at 5 o’clock
Past perfect tenses to Past perfect tenses (remains unchanged)
He said, ‘I had seen him twice before.’
He said he had seen him twice before.
‘I can swim very well.’ my father said.
My father said he could swim very well.
They told us, ‘we’ll go home.’
They told us they would go home.
‘It may rain heavily.’ the forecaster said.
The forecaster said it might rain heavily.
He said, ‘I must work hard.’
He said he must/had to work hard.
He said to the cat, ‘You must be hungry.’
He said to the cat it must be hungry.
‘I mustn’t go out at nights.’ she said.
She said she mustn’t go out at nights.
‘My father could be at home.’ he said.
He said that his father could be at home.
It might rain on Sunday.’ she said.
She said it might rain on Sunday.
‘Ankara is the capital of Turkey,’ she said.
She said Ankara is/was the capital of Turkey.
‘I have a Mercedes,’ he told me.
He told me he has/had a Mercedes.
‘I have a Mercedes,’ said the man.
The man said he had a Mercedes, but he didn’t seem rich.
5) CHANGES IN ADVERBS
|DIRECT SPEECH||REPORTED SPEECH|
|now||then, at that time|
|today, tonight||that day, that night|
|yesterday||the day before / the previous day|
|two days ago||two days before|
|last week||the week before / the previous week|
|last Sunday||previous Sunday|
|tomorrow||the following day / the next day|
|next week||the following week|
|next Sunday||the following Sunday|
‘I saw Tom here yesterday.’
Sally said she had seen Tom there the day before.
“We started three years ago.”
They said they started three years before.
“We have to study hard next week.”
They said they had to study hard the following week.
“We are leaving this week.”
They said they they were leaving that week.
“Read this book.”
He told me to read the book.
“This was good.”
He said it was good.