REPORTED STATEMENTS

schlechte horror spiele den der ler sidst ler bedst 1) While reporting a statement that belongs to someone else, we can use either direct speech or reported/indirect speech.

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Direct speech:

We quote the reported sentence directly in quotation marks without making any change.

‘I’m going home,’ she said.

She said: ‘I’m going home.’

She said, ‘I’m going home.’

 

Reported speech (Indirect speech):

Personal pronouns and the tenses are changed in the reported sentence. In this type of speech, we do not use quotation marks.

She says she’s going home.

She said she was going home.

 

2) In reported speech, we have to change the personal pronouns (I, me, myself, etc.) and possessive adjectives (my, your, etc.) according to the person whose sentence we report. 

Sonya said, ‘I have done my homework.’

Sonya said she had done her homework.

* Here we say “she” while speaking about Sonya; similarly, while speaking about Sonya’s homework we say “her” homework.

 

When the reporting verb is in the present or future tense (such as “he says,” “she will tell us” etc.), the tense does not change.

‘I play football in the school team,’ Manu says.

Manu says he plays football in the school team.

 

3) Say and tell

“ Say” can be used without mentioning the person whose statement is reported. On the other hand, “tell” is always used with a personal object, i.e. the person whose statement is reported has to be included in the sentence. 

He said he was going home.

He told me he was going home.

 

If we both want to use the verb “say” and mention the person whose statement we are quoting , then we must use “to” after “say.” 

He said to me he was going home.

 

Similar to “say” and “tell,” the verbs “explain, promise, agree, decide, claim, threaten, admit, complain, deny, suggest, understand, believe, confess, declare, point out, remark, think, warn” can also be used with “that subclause.”

‘I will be careful.’                                           :              He promised that he would be careful.

‘I haven’t failed the exam.’                        :              He denied that he failed the exam.

‘Let’s go to the cinema.’                              :              She suggested that we should go to the cinema.

 

4) If the reporting verb is in the past tense, the tense in the reported sentence must also be given in the past. The present tense must be converted into past tense, and the past tense must be converted into past perfect tense.

 

 

  1. A) TENSE CHANGE IN REPORTED SPEECH:

 

Present simple to past simple

‘I live in the country.’ she told me.

She told me she lived in the country.

 

Present continuous to Past continuous

He said, ‘I’m going home now .’

He said he was going home then.

 

Present perfect tense to past perfect tense 

He said, ‘I have seen this film twice.’

He said he had seen the film twice.

 

Past simple to past simple / past perfect simple

‘I met your cousin at the zoo yesterday.’ he told me.

He told me he had met my cousin at the zoo the day before.

 

Past continuous to past continuous / past perfect continuous

 ‘We were working at 5 o’clock .’ they said

They said they had been working at 5 o’clock

 

Past perfect tenses to Past perfect tenses (remains unchanged)

He said, ‘I had seen him twice before.’

He said he had seen him twice before.

 

 

  1. B) MODAL VERBS IN REPORTED SPEECH

 

  • The past forms of the auxiliary verbs “can, will, may” are, respectively, “could, would, might.”

‘I can swim very well.’  my father said.

My father said he could swim very well.

 

They told us, ‘we’ll go home.’

They told us they would go home.

 

‘It may rain heavily.’ the forecaster said.

The forecaster said it might rain heavily.

 

  • “Must” either does not change, or is used as the past form of “have to”, which is “had to.”

He said, ‘I must work hard.’

He said he must/had to work hard.

 

  • If the original sentence with “must” conveys a guess, then “must” remains unchanged.

He said to the cat, ‘You must be hungry.’

He said to the cat it must be hungry.

 

  • “Mustn’t” remains unchanged.

‘I mustn’t go out at nights.’ she said.

She said she mustn’t go out at nights.

 

  • Past modals (could, would, should, might, ought, had better, used to ) remain unchanged.

‘My father could be at home.’ he said.

He said that his father could be at home.

 

It might rain on Sunday.’ she said.

She said it might rain on Sunday.

 

 

  1. C) SAID TOLD
  • For phrases that are constructed by using past tense (such as “said, told”), if we are reporting a statement that is still valid, we don’t have to change the tense.

‘Ankara is the capital of Turkey,’ she said.

She said Ankara is/was the capital of Turkey.

 

‘I have a Mercedes,’ he told me.

He told me he has/had a Mercedes.

 

  • Nevertheless, if we do not believe in the statement we are reporting, we always change the tense.

‘I have a Mercedes,’ said the man.

The man said he had a Mercedes, but he didn’t seem rich.

 

5) CHANGES IN ADVERBS

 

 

  • If we are reporting words that convey the place and time, we have to convert these words in order to express that we are speaking of the place and time in the past. Possible conversions are listed below:

 

DIRECT SPEECH REPORTED SPEECH
now then, at that time
today, tonight that day, that night
yesterday the day before / the previous day
two days ago two days before
last week the week before / the previous week
last Sunday previous Sunday
tomorrow the following day / the next day
next week the following week
next Sunday the following Sunday
come go
here there

 

Examples:

 

‘I saw Tom here yesterday.’

Sally said she had seen Tom there the day before.

 

“We started three years ago.”

They said they started three years before.

 

“We have to study hard next week.”

They said they had to study hard the following week.

 

THIS/THAT/THESE/THOSE

  • While reporting, “this” must be used as “that”, and “these” must be reported as “those.”

“We are leaving this week.”

They said they they were leaving that week.

 

  • If the word “this” is used as an object, then, it is reported as “the”.

“Read this book.”

He told me to read the book.

 

  • If “this” and “that” is used as a pronoun, then these words must be converted as “it.”

This was good.”

He said it was good.

 

  • These conversions may differ depending on the situation. For example, if the statement “We’ll visit you next week” was said last week, while reporting it this week we use “They said they would visit us this week.”