SINGULARS AND PLURALS

schlechte horror spiele In the English language, the singular and plural forms of countable nouns are different than each other. Below you can find examples on how to make singular nouns plural, as well as the different uses of singular and plural nouns.

den der ler sidst ler bedst  

ruby laser autonivel there Regular plurals 

Most nouns belong to this group. They are made plural by adding the suffix “-s”.

In the English language, regular plurals are separated into three groups depending on the last letter in the singular form of the noun.

  • If the singular form of a noun ends with a sibilant (s, z, ş, j, ç or c – /s/, /z/, /ʃ/, /ʒ/, /tʃ/ or /dʒ/), the noun is made plural by adding “-es” to the end. If the noun ends with “-e”, then simply adding “-s” would be sufficient. By using this method, the sibilant consonants at the end of the word are turned into “iz – /ɨz/”.

Boss                      Bosses 

Phase                   Phases 

Radish                  Radishes 

Corsage               Corsages 

Glitch                   Glitches 

Grudge                Grudges 

 

  • If the singular form of a noun ends with a non-sibilant consonant (p, t, k, f or θ – /p/, /t/, /k/, /f/ or /θ/), simply adding “-s” would be sufficient to make it plural.

Cap                        Caps

Bat                         Bats

Block                    Blocks

Cuff                       Cuff

Bath                      Baths

 

  • All other nouns ending with a vowel or a sibilant consonant are made plural by adding “-s” to the end.

Decoy                   Decoys

Pearl                     Pearls

Funfair                 Funfairs

 

Plurals of nouns ending with “-o” 

  • Nouns that end with “consonant + o” in the end are made plural by adding “-es” to the end, and are pronounced as “z – /z/”.

Metro                   Metros

Mosquito            Mosquitoes or Mosquitos

Wino                    Winos

 

  • Nouns of Italian origin, however, are made plural by simply adding an “-s” to the end.

Piano                    Pianos

Zero                      Zeros

Portico                 Porticos

Canto                   Cantos

 

Plurals of nouns ending with “-y” 

  • Words ending with “consonant + y” are generally made plural by omitting the final “-y” and replacing it with “-ies.” In this case, the plural form of the noun is pronounced as “iz – /iz/”. If the “-y” is pronounced as “ay – /ai/”, than the plural form is pronounced as “ayz – /aiz/”.

Berry                    Berries 

Body                     Bodies 

Ally                       Allies 

Butterfly             Butterflies 

  • The same rule is applied to the nouns ending with “-quy” as well.

Colloquy             Colloquies

Obloquy              Obloquies

Soliloquy            Soliloquies

  • If the noun ends as “vowel + y”, then the plural form is created by simply adding “-s” to the end.

Display                 Displays

Highway              Highways

Tray                       Trays

 

Near-regular plurals

  • This rule applies to nouns ending with “f or θ – /f/ or /θ/”. In such cases, sometimes the “f” turns into “v”, while /θ/ turns into /ð/. Meanwhile in other cases the “f” may simply turn into “-s” or “-es” as well.

Path                      Paths

Bath                      Baths

Mouth                  Mouths

Wife                     Wives 

Calf                       calves 

Life                        Lives 

Knife                    Knives 

Thief                     Thieves 

Leaf                       leaves

 

  • The point to pay attention to here is that the plural nouns ending with “-ves” (such as “knives”), the pronunciation is /vz/.

Beef                      Beefs/Beeves

Dwarf                   Dwarfs / Dwarves

Hoof                     Hoofs / Hooves

Roof                      Roofs

Scarf                     Scarfs / Scarves

Staff                      Staffs / Staves 

Turf                       Turfs / Turves

Wharf                   Wharfs / Wharves

 

Irregular plurals

Most of the irregular plurals originate either from ancient English, or foreign languages. Just like the regular plurals, the irregulars are also separated into different groups among themselves.

  • Some of the irregular plurals have the same form as their singular forms:

Aircraft, bison, buffalo, deer, duck, fish, hovercraft, moose, pike, plankton, salmon, sheep, spacecraft, squid, swine, trout, watercraft

  • Nouns ending with “-ies”, such as “series” and “species”, also have identical singular and plural forms.

 

  • Some proper names cannot be conjugated plural, either.

Words ending with “-ese” such as “Japanese, Portuguese, Vietnamese”, and other nouns connoting national affiliation. When people of a particular nationality are referred to, the singular form of the noun is used by adding “the” before the noun

Ex: the French, the Swiss, the Polish.

 

Plurals with “-(e)n” “-(e)n”

This is a very rare plural form, originating from ancient English. It can be found in only three nouns:

Ox                          Oxen

Child                     Children

Brother                 Brethren (when the word “brother” refers to a particular community such as                                                                 a religious sect)

 

Apophonic plurals

Apophony refers to the systemic change in the voice unit. In other words, it refers to the minor changes within the word, such as changing one or two letters in the word.

Man                      Men

Woman               Women 

Tooth                   Teeth 

Foot                      Feet 

Louse                   Lice 

Goose                  Geese 

Mouse                 Mice (“mouses” can be ok for computer mouses)

Dormouse          Dormice 

There also are other plurals that do not suit any of the types explained above.

Person                 People 

Die                        Dice 

Penny                  Pence 

 

Singulars without plurals

  • Abstract nouns:

beauty, curiosity, honesty, intelligence, poverty, stupidity, wisdom

 

  • Nouns ending with the suffix “-ness”:

Goodness, cleanliness, coldness, kindness, openness

 

  • Homonyms that have the same meaning with their adjective forms:

Good, bad, hot, cold

 

  • Names of arts and sciences:

Philosophy, chemistry, geometry, surgery, pop, jazz, rock and roll, dualism, surrealism, etc.

 

  • Singular nouns that also look like plural:

Mathematics, physics, statics, thermodynamics, aerodynamics, phonetics, electronics, geophysics, robotics, aerobics, optics, computer graphics, linguistics, cryptography, ethics.

“Phonetics is an area of linguistics that focuses on the sounds used in speech.”

 

  • Chemical elements and physical entities:

Iron, oxygen, lead, nitrogen, aluminum, carbon, copper, gold, silver, air, traffic, crash, water, furniture